Russian Boyare

     Boyarin (Boyarinya, f and Boyarin, m) was the highest rank of the Russian Feudal Society during 10-17th centuries in the Principalities of Moscow, Kievan Rus, Galicia and Volyan, Litva, Bulgaria, Serbia, Khorvatiya, Sloveniya, Moldova. Until 16th century boyare were the vassals of the Prince and later the Tsar and had to serve in the Army of the Prince. At the same time they had a right to go from one Prince to another one changing the lord.

     The title of Boyarin gave a right to participate in the sessions of "Boyarskaya Duma" - an advisory board under a Prince or a tsar. From the 16th century there were changes taken place in the composition of boyare.the authority of the tsar and his power tried to suppress activities of boyare who opposed the centralization of the state and their power. Ivan the Terrible's "Oprichnina" was one of the decisive steps in weakening boyar's authority. By the end of the XVII century many families of boyare were destroyed, liquidated or weakened. Non titled boyare grew as a class and rank as well as Russian Nobility. The development of Russian nobility led to the liqiudation of differences between boyare and noble people, especially in between inherited land ownership and nobility properties. Mestnichestvo, (the policy of the "right" to acquire a post according to the ansestor's service to the tsar- the older- the more influential) was liiquidated in 1682, when all pedigree books were burned. The right to inherit the land and property was officially abolished by Peter the Great in 1714, which gave the final blow to the existence of Boyare.

     From the beginning of the XVIII century there are only 4 cases of decorating people with the title of Boyarin. Those people were P. Apraksin, Y. Shakovskoy, P. Buturlin. and Neledinskiy-Meletskiy, who was the last one to get this title in Russia.

The following are Boyar ranks:

1. Boyarin and the Servant:

Similar to the First, or Prime Minister. This rank appeared in 1562. The first Boyarin and the Servant was  prince Michael Ivanovich Vorotinskiy. Ivan the Terrible's  Boyarin and Servant was Polish citizen Kankordinov. In the book of Russian sceintist historian Zabelin called "Leisure time of Russian Tsars in 16-17 centuries says that the "Servant" was the highest decoration for the service to the tsar and the homeland. The old expression "to suffer for the Russian land" was changed to "serve to the tsar".

2. Boarin and Orusheinichiy  

Boyarin and  Orucheinichiy was in charge of the Tsar's arms and armaments and the Arms' chamber, and the people who worked there in the capacitiy of masters and painters.олжность называлась оружейничий. The first person on this position was Grigoruy Pushkin. The position was abolished in 1690.С 1677 года на эту должность начали назначать бояр, и она стала называться Боярин и оружейничий. Первый боярин и оружейничий был Григорий Гаврилович Пушкин. В 1690 году должность отменили. Последним боярином и оружейничим был Пётр Васильевич Шереметев. •

3. Boyarin and Konushiy.

БBoyarin and Konushiy was Boris Godunov in the government of Ivan the Terrible. He was in charge of all horses stalls and horses factories which belonged to the Tsar.  According to the information of the councellor for the Britain Crown Mr. Fletcher, the annual salalry of Boris Godunov was 12,000 rubles. The regular boyarin's salary was not more than 700 rubles.

4. Boyarin and Mayordom.  The first Boyarin and Moyordom was Michael Saburov, who died in 1465, the last one - Bogdan Chitroy. All the employees of the court were under Boyarin and Mayordom. He was in charge of the "Ministry of the Court, was the Chief Justice, had the right to choose his subordinats. He als was in charge of the Tsars lands which "earned" money to the Tsar. There were boyare and Mayordoms in other princes' lands. Ivan the Terrible made all of them serve to the Moscow Boyarin and mayordom. Their positions were written including the lands they served in- Boyarin and Majordom of Novgorod, for example... The first Romanov Michael abolished all those positions of boyare.

The quantities of boyare under different Rusian Princes and Tsars:

Ivan the Third -5-21

Ivan the IY- up to 38,

Fedor< the som of Ivan the Terrible - 25,

Boris Godunov -26,

LsheDmitriy (False Dmitriy I) - 41,

Vasiliy Shuiskiy - 36,

Seven Boyare time - 30,

Michael Fedorovich - 28,

Alexei Michailovich -33,

Fedor Alexeyevich -47,

Peter the Great -from 70 in 1686 to 26 in 1691.